4.10 Case Study: Needs Assessment

Mon, 11/26/2007 - 00:42

Disclaimer: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, revisions may be required due to new or changing land use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698

   
  Step 1: Background and Objective of the GIS Analysis  
  The Needs Assessment Analysis in this example will focus on equity promotion provided by the LGU to facilitate a participative decision-making in the CLUP preparation process. It is hoped to promote active participation by the CLUP stakeholders: citizens, politicians, civil society, other interest groups, businessmen, etc. and exert profound impacts on community empowerment, innovation and social change.  
  The objective is to prepare a CLUP so it shows the basic needs and demands of the current municipal/city population vis-à-vis the existing public services, facilities and utilities, with the participation of the stakeholders.  
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  There is a number of systems for local monitoring and diagnosis of basic needs fulfillment.

In September 2000, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Millennium Declaration renewing the global commitment to peace and human rights and setting specific goals and targets towards reducing poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), set within 2015, affirm and reinforce the agreements on the goals and targets toward eliminating extreme poverty worldwide. Its eight objectives have measurable outcomes, timelines for achievements, and clear indicators for monitoring progress. As the goals are holistic and interrelated, the process of working together in partnership at the national, regional and local levels is very important. Meeting the requirements for MDGs will entail collaborative efforts of major, stakeholders – the national and local government units as well as the private sector for interventions geared toward mainstreaming the MDGs in the local development agenda.

The Community Based Monitoring System (CBMS) intends to address data requirements for development planning and monitoring at all geopolitical levels including municipalities. CBMS is also intended to play a crucial role in poverty monitoring. CBMS is currently being implemented in the Philippines as well as in many other Asian countries. It promotes the use of Core Local Poverty Indicators (CLPIs) which include a set of indicators that capture the multi-dimensional aspects of poverty.

GIS integrates common database operations such as query and statistical analysis with the unique visualization and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps, which makes it most useful in the CLUP Needs Assessment activity. As 80% of the goods and services the municipality provides has a positional reference, for example locations of schools and roads, GIS helps to maximize all available resources in providing the right policy framework and the right environment for helping the general public gain access to the best quality of life possible.

This IP gives examples on how a CLUP Needs Assessment is outlined using GIS, based on the indicators provided by the Systems mentioned above. The primary common denominator is the barangay for services and utilities within the socio-economic and the infrastructure planning sectors. Demographic data is available at barangay level, and this simplifies analysis of the current situation analysis and the projection of needs. As mentioned in the IP description for the respective Planning Objects, these indicators show the degree of fulfillment of an agreed planning standard or a specific objective/target/goal set by the Municipality. In most cases, for each indicator there is a given standard. For example, if the indicator found in the legend says ‘Barangay with insufficient (or not acceptable) provision of potable water’ there is an underlying planning standard saying that ‘xx % of the households not having access to potable water within the housing unit’ is classified as ‘insufficient/not acceptable.’ For further details, see Vol. 2.

 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  The Needs Analysis Information Product can be seen as a comprehensive summary of the planning objects found in the Socio-economic and Infrastructure Baseline IPs, where only the ‘problems’ are portrayed and the results of the Analysis are presented by four components with the following common denominators:
It should be observed that the analysis is not aimed to show any negative picture about the municipality’s inability to provide services and utilities. The objective is to show the current issues that need to be tackled in the plan in order to improve the situation (see Step 4 in Volume 1).
 
  There are five tables to be used for the Needs Analysis:

NA01 Needs Analysis: Social Services by Barangay; 
NA02 Needs Analysis: Economic Services by Barangay; 
NA03 Needs Analysis: Infrastructure provision by Barangay; 
NA04 Needs Analysis: Social Condition by Facility; 
NA05 Needs Analysis: Infrastructure Condition by Utility

 
  Below are examples on indicators that will be found in the GIS. First the social indicators related to the barangay as per NA01:  
   
  Second is the Economic Services by Barangay based on table NA02:  
   
  Third is the Infrastructure provision by Barangay based on table NA03:  
   
  Fourth is the Social Condition by Facility based on table NA04:  
   
  Fifth is the Infrastructure Condition by Utility based on table NA05:  
   
  Note that some of the indicators are coordinated with the CLPIs above in order to harmonize information and avoid duplication of efforts.  
  The Custodian of Needs Analysis data is the MPDO.  
  The feature types will be polygons (barangays), polylines (infrastructure objects) and points (socio-economic and infrastructure objects).  
  The following steps need to be taken.  
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  Overlay analysis is the process of putting two or more layers on top of each other in the GIS to determine areas of convergence of certain features that give a comprehensive picture for a particular purpose, and thus enable the elimination or screening out of those features that are not suitable for that purpose.

The needs assessment layers, if properly constructed, are most useful in the diagnosis of development issues or the process of problem-finding. The problem-finding analysis involves a three-step process. The first step consists of making meaningful observations or making sense out of the data displayed in Needs Analysis. The second step is probing into the causes or explanations behind the observed conditions. This aspect of the inquiry is important in that it probes into the causes of observed conditions and thus provides the clue to finding more fundamental solutions by attacking the causes rather than the symptoms of the problems. The third step further explores the implications of the observed condition if no significant intervention is exerted by anyone anywhere to change the situation. Implications may be negative or positive according to the perceptions of various groups and sectors of society. It is when negative implications predominate will the observed condition be regarded as a problem.

The analysis can be extended further into determining appropriate policy interventions. This part of the analysis can simply be called the solution-finding phase and is found in Step 6 of the CLUP preparation process and in the building of Scenarios. Policy interventions need not be limited to targeting the negative implications of observed conditions. Positive implications need to be maintained and strengthened through policies that seek to sustain the beneficial effects. Nonetheless, policies intended to remedy the negative implications by eliminating the causative factors deserve priority attention.

 
  Step 5: Present the DataThe Needs Analysis layers can be put on top of a simplified Base Map. The examples below are just examples and do not reflect the actual situation in the LGU.  
  Given the number of overlays, the Need Assessment aspects should be shown on more than one map as per the table NA01-05.  
  The figure below shows how a printed version of the Socio Services by Barangay can look like based on the Layout View. The more combinations of fillings, raster, hatching, outlining, etc. are found on a specific barangay area the more ‘problems’ need to be solved:  
   

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